Foreign relations of Cyprus

Foreign relations
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Nations with which Cyprus has diplomatic relations

Cyprus is a member of the United Nations[1] along with most of its agencies as well as the Commonwealth of Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund and Council of Europe. In addition, the country has signed the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency Agreement (MIGA). Cyprus has been a member of the European Union since 2004 and in the second half of the 2012 it held the Presidency of the Council of the European Union.[2]

Non-alignment

Cyprus has historically followed a non-aligned foreign policy, although it increasingly identifies with the West in its cultural affinities and trade patterns, and maintains close relations with the European Union, Greece, Armenia, Lebanon, and Russia.

Cyprus former President Makarios III at a state visit in Munich with the German Chancellor in 1962
Foreign Ministers of the European Union countries in Limassol during Cyprus Presidency of the EU in 2012

The prime originator of Cypriot non-alignment was Archbishop of Cyprus Makarios III, the first President (1960–1977) of the independent republic of Cyprus. Prior to independence, Makarios - by virtue of his post as Archbishop of Cyprus and head of the Cypriot Orthodox Church - was the Greek Cypriot Ethnarch, or de facto leader of the community. A highly influential figure well before independence, he participated in the 1955 Bandung Conference. After independence, Makarios took part in the 1961 founding meeting of the Non-Aligned Movement in Belgrade.

Cyprus representations abroad
  resident embassy
  non-resident embassy
  diplomatic relations only, but no mission

  states that don't recognise the Republic of Cyprus

Reasons for this neutrality may lie in the extreme pressures exerted on the infant Republic by its larger neighbours, Turkey and Greece. Intercommunal rivalries and movements for union with Greece or partial union with Turkey may have persuaded Makarios to steer clear of close affiliation with either side. In any case Cyprus became a high-profile member of the Non-Aligned Movement and retained its membership until its entry into the European Union in 2004. At the non-governmental level, Cyprus has also been a member of the popular extension of the Non-Aligned Movement, the Afro-Asian Peoples' Solidarity Organisation hosting several high-level meetings.

Immediately after the 1974 Greek-sponsored coup d'état and the Turkish invasion, Makarios secured international recognition of his administration as the legitimate government of the whole island. This was disputed only by Turkey, which currently recognizes only the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, established in 1983.

Since the 1974 crisis, the chief aim of the foreign policy of the Republic of Cyprus has been to secure the withdrawal of Turkish forces and the reunification of the island under the most favorable constitutional and territorial settlement possible. This campaign has been pursued primarily through international forums such as the United Nations and the Non-Aligned Movement, and in recent years through the European Union.

Bilateral relations

Africa

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Algeria 3 April 1979 See Algeria–Cyprus relations
 Botswana February 22, 2005

Diplomatic relations between Botswana and Cyprus were established on February 22, 2005.[4]

 Burundi
 Cape Verde 31 May 2000

Both countries established diplomatic relations on May 31, 2000.[9]

 Comoros

Cyprus is represented in Comoros by its embassy in Pretoria.[10]

 Egypt 30 September 1960, severed diplomatic relations 21 February 1978, Restored 30 May 1984 See Cyprus–Egypt relations
  • Cyprus has an embassy in Cairo.
  • Egypt has an embassy in Nicosia.

Egypt is a close ally of Cyprus with whom it shares an oilfield. Egypt Conquered Cyprus many times in both ancient, Medieval and Modern era and it was ruled by Egyptians during many period which added bases of Egyptian culture to the local culture and supported increasing the relationship between both countries for many ages, The relationship between the two countries was also strained in February 1978 when Cypriot National Guardsmen shot dead Egyptian Commandos at Larnaca International Airport when the commandos attempted to intervene in a hostage situation.

 Eswatini
 Gambia December 8, 2000

Both countries established diplomatic relations on December 8, 2000.[14]

 Guinea-Bissau 20 May 2008
  • Cyprus and Guinea-Bissau establish diplomatic relations
 Lesotho 25 February 2004
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on 25 February 2004.[15]
  • Cyprus is represented in Lesotho through its embassy in Pretoria, South Africa.[11]
  • Lesotho is represented in Cyprus via parallel accreditation of its embassy in London.[16]
  • Both countries are full members of Commonwealth of Nations.
 Libya 8 November 1973
  • Cyprus is accredited to Libya from its Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Nicosia.
  • Libya has an embassy in Nicosia.
  • Cyprus Foreign Affairs: List of bilateral treaties with Libya
 Madagascar
 Malawi 22 June 2000
 Mauritania
  • Cyprus is represented in Mauritania by its embassy in Tripoli.[20]
  • Mauritania is represented in Cyprus by its embassy in Rome.[21]
 Mauritius February 1, 2001[22]
 Morocco 1979
 Namibia
 São Tomé and Príncipe 7 November 2000

Both countries established diplomatic relations on November 7, 2000.[27]

 Sierra Leone 22 November 2000

Both countries established diplomatic relations on November 22, 2000.[28]

 Seychelles 1 July 1976
 South Africa December 10, 1993
 Togo 24 September 2015

Cyprus is represented in Togo by its embassy in Paris, France.[34]

 Tunisia 5 November 1999
  • Cyprus is represented in Tunisia through its embassy in Paris (France).
  • Tunisia is represented in Cyprus through its embassy in Rome (Italy) and an honorary consulate in Larnaca.
  • Both countries are full members of the Union for the Mediterranean.
  • Tunisian Foreign Affairs Ministry about relations with Cyprus (in French only)[permanent dead link]
 Uganda
  • Both countries have established diplomatic relations and have signed an Agreement for Cooperation in the Field of Tourism.[35]
  • Both countries are full members of the Commonwealth of Nations.
 Zambia

Americas

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Antigua and Barbuda 22 July 2004
 Argentina 20 May 1968 and 3 June 1968
  • Argentina is accredited to Cyprus from its embassy in Tel Aviv, Israel and has an honorary consulate in Nicosia.[41]
  • Cyprus is accredited to Argentina from its embassy in Madrid, Spain and has an honorary consulate in Buenos Aires.[42]
  • List of Treaties ruling relations Argentina and Cyprus (Argentine Foreign Ministry, in Spanish)
  • Cyprus Foreign Affairs: List of bilateral treaties with Argentina
 Belize 21 July 2000
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on July 21, 2000.[43]
  • Cyprus is represented in Belize through its embassy in Mexico City, Mexico.[11]
  • Both countries are members of the Commonwealth of Nations.
 Brazil July 21, 1964
  • Diplomatic relations were established on July 21, 1964[44]
  • Cyprus has an embassy in Brasilia.[45]
  • Brazil has an embassy in Nicosia.[46]
 Canada See Canada–Cyprus relations

Canadian bilateral political relations with Cyprus stemmed initially from Cypriot Commonwealth membership at independence in 1960 (that had followed a guerrilla struggle with Britain). These relations quickly expanded in 1964 when Canada became a major troop contributor to UNFICYP. The participation lasted for the next 29 years, during which 50,000 Canadian soldiers served and 28 were killed. In large measure Canadian relations with Cyprus continue to revolve around support for the ongoing efforts of the United Nations, G8 and others to resolve the Island's divided status. Contacts with Cyprus on other issues also take place in international organizations such as the UN, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe and the Commonwealth of Nations.

  • Canada is accredited to Cyprus from its embassy in Athens, Greece and an honorary consulate in Nicosia.[47]
  • Cyprus has a High Commission in Ottawa and an honorary consulate in Vancouver.[48]
 Colombia 25 January 1966 and 14 May 1970
  • Colombia is represented in Cyprus through its embassy in Rome, Italy.
  • Cyprus is represented in Colombia through its embassy in Mexico City, Mexico.

In 2010, both Ministers of Foreign Affairs signed a cooperation agreement regarding tourism and the war on drugs.[49]

 Dominica 13 June 2001

Both countries are members of the Commonwealth of Nations. A Joint Communiqué on the Establishment of Diplomatic Relations between the Republic of Cyprus and the Commonwealth of Dominica was signed on the 13 June 2001 in New York[50]

 Guyana 11 February 1972
 Mexico 20 February 1974 See Cyprus–Mexico relations
  • Cyprus does not have an accreditation to Mexico.
  • Mexico is accredited to Cyprus from its embassy in Athens, Greece and maintains an honorary consulate in Nicosia.[52]
 Panama 1 April 1971

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 1 April 1971.[53]

 Peru 19 September 1966
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1966.[54]
  • Cyprus is represented in Peru through its embassy in Brasilia, Brazil.[17]
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 2 August 2006
 Suriname 25 July 1980

Both countries established diplomatic relations on July 25, 1980.[56]

 Trinidad and Tobago
 United States 16 August 1960 See Cyprus–United States relations
Cyprus president Dimitris Christofias and Cyprus first lady with U.S. President Barack Obama and Michelle Obama

Asia

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Armenia 18 March 1992 See Armenia–Cyprus relations
  • Armenia is represented in Cyprus through its embassy in Athens (Greece).
  • Cyprus is represented in Armenia through its embassy in Moscow (Russia) and through an honorary consulate in Yerevan.
  • There are over 3,500 people of Armenian descent living in Cyprus.
  • Cyprus was the second country to recognize the Armenian genocide on 24 April 1975.
  • Cyprus Foreign Ministry: list of bilateral treaties with Armenia
 China 14 December 1971 See China–Cyprus relations
 East Timor 20 June 2002

Both countries established diplomatic relations on June 12, 2002.[62]

 Georgia 9 July 1992 See Cyprus–Georgia relations
  • Cyprus is represented in Georgia through its embassy in Athens (Greece).
  • Georgia has an embassy in Nicosia.
  • Cyprus Ministry of Foreign affairs: list of bilateral treaties with Georgia
  • Georgian Ministry of Foreign Affairs about the relations with Cyprus
 India 10 February 1962 See Cyprus–India relations
 Iran 1960s
  • Cyprus has an embassy in Tehran.[64]
  • Iran has an embassy in Nicosia.
  • Cyprus Ministry of Foreign Affairs: list of bilateral treaties with Iran
 Indonesia 4 December 1987
  • Diplomatic relations were established on December 4, 1987[65][66]
  • Cyprus is represented in Indonesia through its High Commission in Canberra, Australia.[67]
  • Indonesia is represented in Cyprus through its embassy in Rome, Italy.[68]
 Israel 17 August 1960 See Cyprus–Israel relations

In the case of Israel, Cyprus has occasionally outwardly backed the Palestinians in the Arab–Israeli conflict, to the annoyance of some in the Israeli government. Cyprus, like over 100 other countries, officially recognizes Palestine as a de facto state.

The island is also host to a number of Palestinian and Lebanese refugees.

Relations between the two countries continued to suffer when Cypriot first lady Antroulla Vasiliou, the wife of the then President George Vasiliou, was declared persona non grata in Israel when a delegation she was leading attempted to meet with Yasser Arafat, who was under house arrest.

Controversy and public outcry arose in the early 2000s, when members of the Cypriot branch of the Greek Orthodox Church were accused of selling church-owned land in the West Bank to Israeli developers, putting Cypriot commitment to the Palestinian cause at question.

The expulsion of two alleged Israeli spies from the island in 1998 also caused tension between the two governments.

The two countries now appear to be on improving terms, there has been coopertation on numerous areas but mostly on agriculture, military and tourism. The Cypriot government has also been reported to be making deals with both Israel and Egypt in exploring for oil off the southern Cyprus coast.

Israeli foreign minister Avigdor Lieberman visited Cyprus at the invitation of his Cypriot counterpart when Netanyahu was in Washington for the direct talks with the Palestinian leader. Lieberman and Cypriot foreign minister Kyprianou have met several times this year in an effort to strengthen relations between their countries.

 Japan 11 May 1962
  • Cypriot president Makarios made a state visit to Japan in 1970. Subsequently, Cypriot president Spyros Kyprianou visited in 1984 and president George Vasiliou visited in 1989 and 1990.
  • The balance of trade between Cyprus and Japan is heavily weighed in favor of Japan, with Japan exporting automobiles and electrical products and importing clothing and food products.
  • Cyprus is represented in Japan through its non-resident ambassador based in Beijing, China, with an honorary consulate in Tokyo.
  • Japan is represented in Cyprus through its non-resident ambassador based in Athens, Greece, with as an honorary consulate in Limassol.
  • Cypriot Ministry of Foreign Affairs: list of bilateral treaties with Japan
  • Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs on relations with Cyprus
 Jordan 11 January 1962
  • Cyprus has an embassy in Amman.
  • Jordan has an embassy in Nicosia.
  • Both countries are members of the Union for the Mediterranean.
  • Cyprus Foreign Affairs: List of bilateral treaties with Jordan
 Kazakhstan 2 April 1992
  • Cyprus an honorary consulate in Nur-Sultan and is represented through its embassy in Moscow.[71]
  • Kazakhstan has an honorary consultate in Nicosia and Limassol.
  • Both countries are members of the United Nations.
  • Cyprus Foreign Affairs: List of bilateral treaties with Kazakhstan
 Kyrgyzstan 20 February 1992
 Kuwait 3 May 2005 See Cyprus–Kuwait relations
  • Cyprus has an embassy in Kuwait City.
  • Kuwait has an embassy in Nicosia.
 Lebanon 20 September 1960
  • Cyprus has an embassy in Beirut.[73]
  • Lebanon has an embassy in Nicosia.
  • Both countries are members of the Union for the Mediterranean.
  • Cyprus Foreign Affairs: List of bilateral treaties with Lebanon
 Maldives 1 November 1987
 Mongolia 19 December 1973 and 19 December 1979
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on December 19, 1973.[76][77]
  • Cyprus is represented in Mongolia through its embassy in Beijing, China.[17]
  • Mongolia is represented in Cyprus through its embassy in Sofia, Bulgaria[78]
 North Korea 23 December 1991
 Oman 1978
  • Oman has an embassy in Nicosia.
  • Cyprus is represented in Oman through its embassy in Cairo (Egypt) and through an honorary consulate in Muscat.
  • Cyprus Ministry of Foreign Affairs: list of bilateral treaties with Oman
  • Oman Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Cyprus[permanent dead link]
 Palestine 1988
 Qatar 21 February 2001 See Cyprus–Qatar relations
  • Cyprus has an embassy in Doha.
  • Qatar has an embassy in Nicosia and an honorary consulate in Limassol.
  • Both countries are members of the United Nations.
  • Cyprus Foreign Affairs: List of bilateral treaties with Qatar
 Saudi Arabia 27 October 1961 See Cyprus–Saudi Arabia relations
  • Cyprus is represented through its honorary consulate in Jeddah.
  • Saudi Arabia is represented through its embassy in Nicosia.
  • Both countries are members of the United Nations.
  • [1]
 South Korea 28 December 1995[80]
  • The establishment of diplomatic relations between the Republic of Korea and the Republic of Cyprus began on 28 December 1995.
  • The Republic of Cyprus is accredited to the Republic of Korea from its non-resident ambassador based in Canberra (Australia).
  • The Republic of Korea is accredited to Cyprus from its non-resident ambassador based in Athens (Greece) and an honorary consulate in Nicosia.
 Sri Lanka March 1981
 Syria
 Tajikistan 27 February 1992
 Thailand 5 May 1980
  • Cyprus is represented in Thailand through its High Commission in New Delhi, India.[86]
  • Thailand is represented in Cyprus through its embassy in Rome, Italy.[68]
 Turkey 16 August 1960, diplomatic relations broke off 5 March 1976

Turkey does not recognize the government of the Republic of Cyprus, stating that the Republic—as established by the Constitution of 1960—ceased to exist when the intercommunal violence that commenced in December 1963 ended Turkish Cypriot participation in the Cypriot government. The attempted coup in July 1974—engineered by Greek Military Junta—was responded to by Turkey by a full military invasion, which resulted in the northern third of the island being occupied by Turkish military forces. This portion of Cyprus unilaterally declared independence in November 1983 as the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC), which only Turkey recognizes. Turkey refers to the Republic of Cyprus government as "The Greek Cypriot Administration of Southern Cyprus."

Cyprus takes the view that the TRNC government is a puppet administration, and thus prefers to negotiate with Turkey over the resolution of the Cyprus Problem. Turkey insists that the TRNC government is the institution that the RoC government must refer to in negotiations.

Cyprus' accession to the European Union has had a negative impact on Turkey in regards to its own accession negotiations. The refusal of Turkey to allow Cypriot-flagged ships to access Turkish ports has resulted in a partial suspension of its accession negotiations.

 United Arab Emirates 12 April 1978 and 6 June 2007 See Cyprus–United Arab Emirates relations
  • Cyprus has an embassy in Abu Dhabi
  • United Arab Emirates still didn't open and embassy in Nicosia and is expected to do so in 2015.
  • Cyprus Foreign Affairs: List of bilateral treaties with Syria
 Vietnam 29 November 1975

Cyprus is represented in Vietnam through its embassy in New Delhi, India. Vietnam is represented in Cyprus through its embassy in Tripoli, Libya.

Europe

Cyprus embassy in Stockholm
Cyprus embassy in Moscow

Cyprus' 1990 application for full EU membership caused a storm in the Turkish Cypriot community, which argued that the move required their consent. Following the December 1997 EU Summit decisions on EU enlargement, accession negotiations began 31 March 1998. Cyprus joined the European Union on 1 May 2004. To fulfil its commitment as a member of the European Union, Cyprus withdrew from the Non-Aligned Movement on accession, retaining observer status.

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Albania 28 August 1991
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on 28 August 1991.[87]
  • Albania is represented in Cyprus by its embassy in Athens, Greece[88] and an honorary consulate in Larnaca.[89]
  • Cyprus is represented in Albania by its embassy in Athens, Greece[11][90] and an honorary consulate in Tirana.[91]
  • Both countries have a number of bilateral agreements.[87]
 Austria See Austria–Cyprus relations
 Belgium 1960
 Bulgaria 30 October 1960 See Bulgaria–Cyprus relations
  • Bulgaria has an embassy in Nicosia, and honorary consulate in Limassol.
  • Cyprus has an embassy in Sofia.
  • Cyprus joined the European Union as a full member on 1 May 2004, while Bulgaria joined on 1 January 2007.
  • Cyprus Foreign Affairs: List of bilateral treaties with Bulgaria
 Croatia 4 February 1993 See Croatia–Cyprus relations
  • Croatia is represented in Cyprus through its embassy in Rome (Italy) and an honorary consulate in Nicosia.
  • Cyprus is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Vienna (Austria) and an honorary consulate in Zagreb.
  • Cyprus joined the European Union as a full member on 1 May 2004, while Croatia joined on 1 July 2013.
  • Croatian Ministry of Foreign Affairs: list of bilateral treaties with Cyprus
 Czech Republic 1 February 1961 and 1 January 1993 See Cyprus–Czech Republic relations
  • Cyprus has an embassy in Prague.[92]
  • The Czech Republic has an embassy in Nicosia and 2 honorary consulates (in Limassol and Nicosia).[93]
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union.
  • Cyprus Foreign Affairs: List of bilateral treaties with the Czech Republic
 Denmark 2 November 1960 See Cyprus–Denmark relations
  • Cyprus has an embassy in Copenhagen and an honorary consulate in Århus.[94]
  • Denmark has an embassy in Nicosia.[95]
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union.
  • Cyprus Ministry of Foreign Affairs: List of bilateral treaties with Denmark
 Estonia 20 December 1991
  • Cyprus recognized the Republic of Estonia on 12 September 1991.
  • Cyprus is represented in Estonia through its embassy in Helsinki (Finland).
  • Estonia is represented in Cyprus through its embassy in Athens (Greece) and through 2 honorary consulates in Nicosia.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union.
  • By the late 2005, in Nicosia the first session of the Estonia-Cyprus Intergovernmental Commission established under the Agreement on Economic, Scientific, Technical and Industrial Co-operation took place.
  • Cyprus Ministry of Foreign Affairs: list of bilateral treaties with Estonia
  • Estonian Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Cyprus
 Finland 29 September 1961 See Cyprus–Finland relations
  • Finland recognized Cyprus on 16 August 1960.
  • Cyprus has an embassy in Helsinki and an honorary consulate in Vantaa.[96]
  • Finland has an embassy and 2 honorary consulates in Nicosia.[97]
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union.
  • Cyprus Foreign Affairs: List of bilateral treaties with Finland
 France 16 August 1960 See Cyprus–France relations
  • The two countries share membership of the European Union.
  • Cyprus is an associate member of the Francophonie organization since 2006. About 12% of Cyprus population speaks and understands French.
  • France is a supporter of Cyprus in the different (sicsic) that oppose the European Union against Turkey's refusal to recognize and admit Cypriot ships and planes.
  • France contributes significantly in the military equipment of Cypriot National Guard.
  • In 2019 it was decided the establishment of a French military marine base on the island.[98]
  • List of Treaties between the 2 countries by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Cyprus
  • French embassy in Cyprus
 Germany 20 August 1960 See Cyprus–Germany relations
  • Cyprus has an embassy in Berlin and a consulate-general in Hamburg.[99]
  • Germany has an embassy in Nicosia.[100]
  • Both countries are members of the European Union.
  • In 2004, an agreement on mutual recognition of university degrees was signed, designed to facilitate Cypriot and German students' admission to German and Cypriot universities.
  • There is a close and trustful cooperation at a government level. Minister of State Hoyer visited Cyprus on 11 and 12 February 2010. Federal Foreign Minister Westerwelle met with his Cypriot counterpart Marcos Kyprianou in Berlin on 2 March
  • Cyprus Foreign Ministry: list of bilateral treaties between Cyprus and Germany
  • German Foreign Ministry about relations with Cyprus
 Greece 16 August 1960
  • See Cyprus–Greece relations
  • Cyprus has an embassy in Athens and a consulate-general in Thessaloniki.
  • Greece has an embassy in Nicosia.
  • Both countries are members of the European Union.
  • The Greek Cypriot majority in Cyprus and the ethnic Greek population of Greece share a common ethnicity, heritage, language, and religion, leading to an exceptionally close relationship between the two countries.
 Hungary 18 October 1960
  • Cyprus has an embassy in Budapest.
  • Hungary has an embassy and an honorary consulate in Nicosia.[101]
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union.
  • Cyprus Foreign Affairs: List of bilateral treaties with Hungary
IcelandIceland 4 September 1979
Republic of Ireland Ireland 23 November 1984 See Cyprus–Ireland relations
 Italy 1960
 Latvia
 Lithuania 3 December 1992
  • Cyprus is represented in Lithuania through its embassy in Warsaw (Poland).
  • Lithuania is represented in Cyprus through its embassy in Athens (Greece) and through an honorary consulates in Nicosia and Larnaca.[104]
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union.
  • Cyprus Foreign Ministry: list of bilateral treaties with Lithuania
  • Lithuanian Ministry of Foreign affairs: list of bilateral treaties with Cyprus (in Lithuanian only)
 Malta 13 September 1972 See Cyprus–Malta relations
  • Cyprus is represented to Malta through its accredited embassy in Rome (Italy).
  • Malta is represented to Cyprus through its accredited embassy in Athens (Greece).
  • The two countries are members of the European Union and the Commonwealth of Nations.
  • List of Treaties between the 2 countries by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Cyprus
 Moldova 21 February 1992
  • Cyprus Ministry of Foreign Affairs: list of bilateral treaties with Moldova
  • Moldovan Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration about relations with Cyprus Archived 2011-07-22 at the Wayback Machine
 Monaco 24 February 2011
  • 2011...February 24, date which is officially regarded as the date of establishment of diplomatic relations between the two countries
  • Ambassador designate
 Montenegro 12 March 2007 See Cyprus–Montenegro relations
  • Cyprus recognized the Republic of Montenegro on 16 June 2006.
  • Cyprus is represented in Montenegro through its embassy in Belgrade (Serbia).
  • Establishment of diplomatic relations (Cyprus Ministry Foreign Affairs)
  • Cyprus recognition official recognition of Montenegro (in Montenegrin)
  • Cyprus recognition official recognition of Montenegro
 Netherlands 1960 See Cyprus–Netherlands relations
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1960, after Cyprus's independence.
  • Cyprus has an embassy in The Hague.[105]
  • The Netherlands have an embassy in Nicosia and 2 honorary consulates in Limassol.[106]
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union.
  • Cyprus Foreign Affairs: List of bilateral treaties with the Netherlands
  • Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Cyprus (in Dutch)[permanent dead link]
 North Macedonia 30 August 2019 Both countries established diplomatic relations on August 29, 2019.[107][108][109]
 Norway 22 March 1963 See Cyprus–Norway relations

Cyprus–Norway relations are foreign relations between Cyprus and Norway.[citation needed] Diplomatic relations were established on 22 March 1963.[110] The government in Cyprus considers that "bilateral relations between Cyprus and Norway are excellent in all fields".[111]

Neither country has resident ambassadors. Cyprus is represented in Norway through its embassy in Stockholm, Sweden, and 2 honorary consulates, one in Oslo and the second in Kristiansand. Norway is represented in Cyprus through its embassy in Athens, Greece, and an honorary consulate in Nicosia.[112] Both countries are full members of the Council of Europe. Diplomatic relations were established on 22 March 1963.[111]

On 21 August 1951, there was a Consular Convention and an Exchange of Letters relating to establishing diplomatic relations. On 2 May 1951, there was a Convention for the Avoidance of Double Taxation and the Prevention of Fiscal Evasion with respect to Taxes on Income. On 17 May 1962, there was an Exchange of Letters constituting an Agreement on the Abolition of Visa Requirement in Nicosia. On 5 March 1963, there was an Agreement on Commercial Scheduled Air Transport signed in London.[113]

The taxation levels in Cyprus are considerably lower than in Norway, and Cyprus has actively courted Norwegians to move to Cyprus.[114] Among the Norwegians who moved to Cyprus is the shipping billionaire John Fredriksen, who was the richest man in Norway.[115][116][117]

In 1996 tax rules in Norway were changed to keep shipping companies competitive and under the Norwegian flag. By 2008 changes to the tonnage tax regime to harmonize them with the European Union forced some companies to register in Cyprus.[118] Norwegian Service rig company Prosafe moved their headquarters to Cyprus.[119]

Several Norwegian retirees also moved to Cyprus; this too is largely to benefit from the lower tax rate on Cyprus and the minimal crime.[120]

  • Cyprus Ministry of Foreign Affairs: list of bilateral treaties with Norway
  • Cyprus embassy in Stockholm (also accredited to Norway)
  • Norway embassy in Athens (also accredited to Cyprus) Archived 2010-04-08 at the Wayback Machine
 Poland 15 January 1961 See Cyprus–Poland relations
  • Cyprus has an embassy in Warsaw and 2 honorary consulates (in Gdynia and Szczecin).
  • Poland has an embassy in Nicosia and an honorary consulate general in Limassol.[121]
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union.
  • Cyprus Foreign Affairs: List of bilateral treaties with Poland
 Portugal 5 March 1975
 Romania 15 November 1960
  • Romania has an embassy in Nicosia since November 1960.[122]
  • Cyprus has an embassy in Bucharest.
  • Cyprus joined the European Union as a full member on 1 May 2004, while Romania joined on 1 January 2007.
  • Cyprus Foreign Ministry: list of bilateral treaties between Cyprus and Romania
  • Romanian Foreign Ministry about relations with Cyprus
 Russia 18 August 1960 See Cyprus–Russia relations
Presidents of Russia and Cyprus meet at least once every year.
  • The USSR established diplomatic relations with the newly independent Republic of Cyprus on 18 August 1960.
  • Cooperation between both countries has increased since the 1990s and the fall of the USSR.
  • Cyprus has an embassy in Moscow and consulates-general in Krasnodar, Saint Petersburg, Samara and in Yekaterinburg.
  • Russia has an embassy in Nicosia.
 Serbia 7 October 1960 See Cyprus–Serbia relations
  • Cyprus has an embassy in Belgrade.
  • Serbia has an embassy and an honorary consulate in Nicosia.
  • Cyprus is an EU member and Serbia is an candidate.
  • The two countries share common cultural and religious ascpects as both have major Orthodox Christian populations.[123]
  • Cyprus Ministry of Foreign Affairs: list of bilateral treaties with Serbia
 Slovakia 1 January 1993
  • Cyprus is represented in Slovakia through its embassy in Vienna (Austria).
  • Slovakia has an embassy in Nicosia and an honorary consulate in Limassol.[124]
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union.
  • Cyprus Ministry of Foreign Affairs: list of bilateral treatis with Slovakia
 Slovenia 10 December 1992
 Spain 25 December 1967 See Cyprus–Spain relations
 Sweden 12 December 1960 See Cyprus–Sweden relations
  • Sweden was one of the first countries that sent UN peacekeepers to Cyprus in 1964.[127]
  • Since 1994, Cyprus has an embassy in Stockholm.[128]
  • Sweden has an embassy and an honorary consulate in Nicosia.[129]
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union.
  • Cyprus Foreign Affairs: List of bilateral treaties with Sweden
  Switzerland
  • Cyprus is represented in Switzerland through its embassy in Rome (Italy).
  • Switzerland has an embassy in Nicosia.
 Ukraine 19 February 1992
  • The Cypriot embassy in Kyiv (since 2011) and an honorary consulate in Mariupol.[130]
  • Ukraine has an embassy in Nicosia and an honorary consulate in Limassol.[131]
  • Cyprus Ministry of Foreign Affairs: list of bilateral treaties with Ukraine
 United Kingdom 16 August 1960 See Cyprus–United Kingdom relations
  • The two countries share membership of the Commonwealth of Nations.
  • Cyprus gained its independence from the United Kingdom in 1960, after 83 years of British control.

The continuing British sovereignty of the Dhekelia and Akrotiri areas, has continued to divide Cypriots. The Sovereign Base Areas are not under the jurisdiction of the Cypriot government. Several Cypriot villages remain enclaved in the areas, and there have been numerous arrests of anti-British demonstrators over the past few years. These activists assert that the UK should not continue to hold territory in another European state.

Oceania

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Australia
  • Australia has a High Commission in Nicosia.[132]
  • Cyprus has a High Commission in Canberra.[133]
 Fiji 1978
 Nauru 23 March 2000

Both countries established diplomatic relations on March 23, 2000.[134]

 New Zealand
  • Since 1964, New Zealand has contributed several times to the UN Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP).
  • Cyprus is represented in New Zealand through its High Commission in Canberra (Australia) and through an honorary consulate in Christchurch.
  • New Zealand is represented in Cyprus through its embassy in Rome (Italy) and through an honorary consulate in Nicosia.
  • Both countries are full members of the Commonwealth of Nations.
  • New Zealand Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade about relations with Cyprus Archived 2009-04-27 at the Wayback Machine
 Papua New Guinea 31 March 1978
 Samoa 24 May 2000

Both countries established diplomatic relations on March 24, 2000.[136][137]

 Solomon Islands May 5, 2010
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on May 5, 2010.[138]
  • Cyprus is represented in the Solomon Islands via parallel accreditation of its High Commission in Canberra, Australia.[11]
  • Both countries are full members of the Commonwealth of Nations.
 Tonga June 22, 2009
  • Establishment of Diplomatic Relations with the Republic of Cyprus
  • Both Cyprus and Tonga are members of the Commonwealth of Nations.
 Vanuatu 26 February 1990

Overview

The Republic of Cyprus maintains diplomatic relations with 179 states (including the Holy See and Palestinian National Authority) and is United Nations, Union for the Mediterranean and European Union full member. It does not maintain diplomatic relations with:[139][140]

The Republic of Cyprus is not recognised by Turkey.[141]

International disputes

Condoleezza Rice by US ambassadors in Larnaca International Airport, Cyprus

The 1974 invasion of the Turkish army divided the island nation into two. The internationally recognised Republic of Cyprus currently has effective control in the south of the island (59% of the island's land area) while its area not under its effective control makes up 37% of the island. Turkey utilising the territory occupied during the invasion recognizes a declared separatist[142] UDI of Turkish Cypriots in 1983, contrary to multiple United Nations Security Council Resolutions. The two territories of the Republic are separated by a United Nations Buffer Zone (4% of the island); there are two UK sovereign base areas mostly within the Greek Cypriot portion of the island.

Illicit drugs

Cyprus is a minor transit point for cannabis and cocaine via air routes and container traffic to Europe, especially from Lebanon; some hashish transits as well. The island has also been criticised for supposedly lax guns control legislation.

Cyprus and the Commonwealth of Nations

Although Cyprus became an independent republic in 1960, Cyprus has been a member state of the Commonwealth of Nations since 1961.

See also

References

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External link

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