Electric unicycle

Self-balancing unicycles at 'Paris sans Voiture' (Paris without cars), September 2015.

An electric unicycle (often initialized as EUC or acronymized yuke or Uni) is a self-balancing personal transporter with a single wheel. The rider controls speed by leaning forwards or backwards, and steers by twisting or tilting the unit side to side. The self-balancing mechanism uses accelerometers, gyroscopes, and a magnetometer.[1] In 2020, suspension models were introduced by three major manufacturers Begode, Kingsong and Inmotion.

Operation

Commercial units are self-balancing in a forward and backward direction, with side-to-side (lateral) stability being provided by the steering motions of the rider, similar to Bicycle and motorcycle dynamics. As of 2022, no commercial human-rideable unicycle has lateral self-balancing capabilities. However, a non-ridable, dual-axis self-balancing unicycle was demonstrated in 2012, with small, lightweight robots using a large weighted reaction wheel[2] or control moment gyroscope. The control of a unicycle can be considered to be an inverted pendulum.

History

Trevor Blackwell demonstrates his prototype

Early experimentation

See also Monowheel

A hand-power monowheel was patented in 1869 by Richard C. Hemming[3] with a pedal-power unit patented in 1885.[4] Various motorized monowheels were developed and demonstrated during the 1930s without commercial success[5] and Charles F Taylor was granted a patent for a "vehicle having a single supporting and driving wheel" in 1964 after some 25 years of experimentation.[6] In 1977 Charles Gabriel presented an electric unicycle that resembles the design of today's devices.[7]

Commercialisation

In 2003, Bombardier announced a conceptual design for such a device used as a sport vehicle, the Embrio.[8] In September 2004 Trevor Blackwell demonstrated a functional self-balancing unicycle, using the control-mechanism similar to that used by the Segway PT and published the designs as the Eunicycle.[citation needed]. This approach was further refined by a group of engineering students at the University of Adelaide who developed The Micycle, which incorporated a hub-motor, a Lithium-Ion Battery and a novel steering mechanism where the wheel pivoted independent of the main chassis.[9]

The Micycle in 2010 with its steering mechanism, hub motor and lithium-ion battery pack.

In March 2010 Shane Chen of Inventist filed a patent application for a seatless electric unicycle (associated with the "Solowheel" product launched in February 2011), which uses flat pedals to stand on and leg contact surfaces to allow for stable, precise control in lieu of a seat.[10][11] In Oct 2010 Focus Designs published a video of an electric unicycle with hub motor and a seat.[12] Late in 2015, the Ford Motor Company patented a "self-propelled unicycle engagable with vehicle", intended for last-mile commuters.[13] Segway launched their One S1 model in November of 2017.

EUC and motorized scooter riders participating in a group ride in San Francisco. PPE was worn due to higher top speed with newer EUC models. The red-jacket-guy on the left was riding a suspension-model

By the turn of the decade, several Chinese manufacturers dominate the market and continue to release EUC models with higher top speeds (above 75 km/h or 46 mph),[14] and longer range batteries. Popularity came around the same time as Begode (formerly known as Gotway) released their M super line. This evolved into the MSX & MSP models and eventually into the RS model. Around this time Veteran stepped on to the scene for the first time with their road wheel the Sherman.[citation needed][clarification needed] In 2020, suspension EUCs were revealed by Inmotion, Kingsong and Gotway.

Suspension

In chronological order, the following suspension-models were released:

Popular culture

Gallery

  • Device in use

    Device in use

  • Airwheel with double-wheel

    Airwheel with double-wheel

  • Front view of a solowheel

    Front view of a solowheel

  • Traffic sign

    Traffic sign

  • Video of unit in use

  • The Micycle.

    The Micycle.

EUC Companies

See also

References

  1. ^ Ab Ghani, Suliana; Rashid, M.I.M.; Sulaiman, Mohd Herwan; Noor, M.K.M.; Subari, Norazian; Ramli, Noor Lina (2016-04-01). "Self balancing unicycle controlled by using arduino". ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences. 11 (7): 4239–4244 – via ResearchGate.
  2. ^ Gong, Daoxiong; Pan, Qi; Zuo, Guoyu; Deng, Wenbo (2012). LQR control for a self-balancing unicycle robot. IEEE. IEEE. pp. 1424–1429. doi:10.1109/WCICA.2012.6358103. ISBN 978-1-4673-1398-8. S2CID 17557940.
  3. ^ Improvement in velocipede, 1869
  4. ^ US Patent 325,548
  5. ^ Bierend, Doug (24 March 2014). "One-wheeled motorcycles: As cool as they are wildly dangerous". Wired.
  6. ^ US Patent 3,145,797
  7. ^ US Patent 4,109,741
  8. ^ "Hot Wheel". Forbes.
  9. ^ Kadis, A., D. Caldecott, A. Edwards, M. Jerbic, R. Madigan, M. Haynes, B. Cazzolato, and Z. Prime (December 2010). "Modelling, simulation and control of an electric unicycle" (PDF). Proc. Of the 2010 Australasian Conference on Robotics & Automation (ACRA 2010).{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  10. ^ "Powered single-wheeled self-balancing vehicle for standing user".
  11. ^ "Solowheel self-balancing unicycle is as easy to ride as it is to afford". Wngadget. 2011-02-11.
  12. ^ Archived at Ghostarchive and the Wayback Machine: focusdesigns (2010-10-11), Self Balancing Unicycle (SBU) V2.0, retrieved 2018-10-07
  13. ^ Read, Richard (December 29, 2015). "Ford Patent Could Transform Your Car Into A Unicycle". The Car Connection. Internet Brns Automotive Group. Retrieved 10 September 2016.
  14. ^ "Know this before buying a Veteran Sherman Electric Unicycle". oneradwheel.com. Retrieved 2020-11-15.
  15. ^ "New 31 mph and 3,000W electric unicycle announced with true suspension". electrek.co. Apr 14, 2020. Retrieved 2020-11-15.
  16. ^ S18 Suspension Test. Kuji Rolls. Apr 10, 2020. Retrieved 2020-12-16
  17. ^ The Suspension Trinity is Complete. evX. Oct 19, 2020. Retrieved 2020-12-16
  18. ^ ANALOG — Science Fiction/Science Fact, Vol. LXXXIII, No. 5, July 1969, pp. 120-151. Illustrations by Peter Skirka.
  19. ^ "Begode". www.begode.com. Archived from the original on 2020-11-26. Retrieved 2021-10-11.
  20. ^ "What we know about the Veteran Sherman electric unicycle". 13 June 2020.
  21. ^ "Inmotion: About Us". Archived from the original on 2019-07-29.
  22. ^ Solowheel
  23. ^ "King Song - Redefining Personal Electric Transportation Vehicles". www.kingsong.com. Archived from the original on 2002-09-22. Retrieved 2021-10-11.
  24. ^ "Segway Z10". Archived from the original on 2018-10-01. Retrieved 2021-10-11.

Further reading

Research papers (in reverse date order)

Daniel R. Gilman "Riding an EUC – From Never-Ever to Expert – A Detailed Written Guide https://forum.electricunicycle.org/topic/21537-learn-to-ride-an-euc-a-detailed-written-guide-from-never-ever-to-expert/

  • Wu, Junfeng; Zhang, Wanying; Wang, Shengda (26 November 2012). "A Two-Wheeled Self-Balancing Robot with the Fuzzy PD Control Method". Mathematical Problems in Engineering. 2012: 1–13. doi:10.1155/2012/469491.
  • Tomašić, Tomislav; Demetlika, Andrea; Crneković, Mladen (2012). "Self-balancing mobile robot tilter". Transactions of FAMENA. p. 23. Archived from the original on 2014-02-09.
  • Ruan, Jian-Wei Zhao; Xiao-Gang (1 September 2011). "Modelling and Control of a Flexible Two-Wheeled Self-Balancing Mobile Robot". International Journal of Systems, Control and Communications. 3 (3): 330–355. doi:10.1504/IJSCC.2011.042438.
  • Ben S. Cazzolato, David Keith Caldecott, Andrew John Edwards, Matthew Anthony Haynes, Miroslav Jerbic, Andrew Christopher Kadis and Rhys James J. Madigan Micycle - A Self-Balancing Unicycle, University of Adelaide, 2010
  • Johnson, R.C. (2002). "Unicycles and bifurcations" (PDF). American Journal of Physics. 66 (7): 589–92. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.693.5310. doi:10.1119/1.19027.
  • Zenkov, DV; Bloch, AM; Marsden, JE (2001). "The Lyapunov-Malkin Theorem and Stabilization of the Unicycle with Rider". Systems and Control Letters. 45 (4): 293–302. doi:10.1016/s0167-6911(01)00187-6.
  • Zenkov, DV; Bloch, AM; Leonard, NE; Marsden, JE (2000). "Matching and Stabilization of Low-dimensional Nonholonomic Systems" (PDF). Proc. CDC. 39: 1289–1295. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2003-06-27.
  • Ulyanov, S. V.; et al. (1998). "Soft computing for the intelligent robust control of a robotic unicycle with a new physical measure for mechanical controllability". Soft Computing. 2 (2): 73–88. doi:10.1007/s005000050036. S2CID 17955504.
  • Sheng, Zaiquan; Yamafuji, Kazuo (1995). Realization of a Human Riding a Unicycle by a Robot. Proceedings of the 1995 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation. Vol. 2. pp. 1319–1326. doi:10.1109/ROBOT.1995.526027. ISBN 978-0-7803-1965-3. S2CID 7280130.
  • A. Schoonwinkel, Design and test of a computer stabilized unicycle Ph.D. dissertation, Stanford University, California, 1987
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Other
  • Flexible two-wheeled self-balancing mobile robot, 9th IFAC Symposium on Robot Control (2009)